Hiến pháp Preamble
In the course of their millennia-old history, the Vietnamese people, working diligently, creatively, and fighting courageously to build their country and defend it, have forged a tradition of unity, humanity, uprightness, perseverance and indomitableness for their nation and have created Vietnamese civilization and culture.
reamble hapter I: THE POLITICAL REGIME hapter II: ECONOMIC SYSTEM hapter III: CULTURE, EDUCATION, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY hapter IV: DEFENCE OF THE SOCIALISTE VIETNAMESE MOTHERLAND hapter V: FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF THE CITIZEN hapter VI: THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY hapter VII: THE COUNTRY'S PRESIDENT hapter VIII: THE GOVERNMENT hapter IX: THE PEOPLE'S COUNCIL AND THE PEOPLE'S COMMITTEES hapter X: THE PEOPLE'S COURT AND THE PEOPLE'S OFFICE OF SUPERVISION AND CONTROL hapter XI: THE NATIONAL FLAG, NATIONAL EMBLEM, NATIONAL ANTHEM, NATIONAL CAPITAL, NATIONAL DAY hapter XII: EFFECT OF THE COSTITUTION AND AMENDMENTS TO THE COSTITUTION This Constitution was unanimously approved by the 8th National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam at its 11th session, sitting of 15 April 1992, at 11.45 a.m. PREAMBLE In the course of their millennia-old history, the Vietnamese people, working diligently, creatively, and fighting courageously to build their country and defend it, have forged a tradition of unity, humanity, uprightness, perseverance and indomitableness for their nation and have created Vietnamese civilization and culture. Starting in 1930, under the leadership of the Communist Party of Vietnam formed and trained by President Ho Chi Minh, they waged a protracted revolutionary struggle full of hardships and sacrifices, resulting in the triumph of the August Revolution. On 2 September 1945, President Ho Chi Minh read the Declaration of Independence and the Democratic Republic of Vietnant came into existence. In the following decades, the people of all nationalities in our country conducted an uninterrupted struggle with the precious assistance of friends throughout the world, especially the socialist countries and the neighbouring countries, achieved resounding exploits, the most outstanding At the 11th session, VIII National ones being the historic Dien Bien Phu and Ho Chi Minh Assembly the Constitution 1992 has been approved campaigns, defeated the two wars of aggression by the colonialists and- the imperialists, liberated the country, reunified the motherland, and brought to completion the people's national democratic revolution. On 2 July 1976, the National Assembly of reunified Vietnam decided to change the country's name to the Socialist Republic of Vietnam; the country entered a period 'Of transition to socialism, strove for national construction, and unyieldingly defended its frontiers while fulfilling its internationalist duty. In successive periods of resistance war and national construction, our country adopted the 1946, 1959, and 1980 Constitutions.. Starting in 1986, a comprehensive national renewal advocated by the 6th Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam has achieved very important initial results. The.National Assembly has decided to revise the 1980 Constitution in response to the requirements of the new situation and tasks. This Constitution establishes our political regime, economic system, social and cultural institutions; it deals with our national defence and security, the fundamental rights and duties of the citizen, the structure and principles regarding the organization and activity of State organs; it institutionalizes the relationship between the Party as leader, the people as master, and the State as administrator. In the light of Marxism-Leninism and Ho Chi Minh's thought, I carrying into effect the Programme of national construction in the period of transition to socialism, the Vietnamese people vow to unite millions as one, uphold the spirit of self-reliance in building the country, carry out a foreign policy of independence, sovereignty, peace, friendship and cooperation with all nations, strictly abide by the Constitution, and win ever greater successes in their effort to renovate, build and defend their motherland. CHAPTER I: THE POLITICAL REGIME Article 1 The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is an independent and sovereign country enjoying unity and territorial integrity, including its mainland, islands, territorial waters and air space. Article 2 The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a State of the people, from the people, for the people. All State power belongs to the people and is based on an alliance between the working class, the peasantry, and the intelligentsia. Article 3 The State guarantees and unceasingly promtites the people's mastery in all f-telds, and severely pun'tshes all acts violating the interests of the motherland and the people; it strives to build a rich and strong country in which social justice prevail, all men have enough to eat and to wear, enjoy freedom, happiness, and all necessary conditions for complete development. Article 4 The Communist Party of Vietnam, the vanguard of the Vietnamese working class, the faithful representative of the rights and interests of the working class, the toiling people, and the whole nation, acting upon the Marxist-Leninist doctrine and Ho Chi Minh's thought, is force leading the State and society. All Party organizations operate within the framework of the Constitution and the law. Article 5 The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is unified State of all nationalities living on the territory of Vietnam. The State carries out a policy of equality, solidarity and mutual assistance among all nationalities and forbids all acts of national discrimination and division. Article 6 The people make use of State power through the agency of the National Assembly and the People's Councils, which represent the will and aspiration of the people, are elected by them and responsible to them. Democratic centralism is the principle governing the organization and activity of the National Assembly, the People's Councils, and all other State organs. Article 7 Elections to the National Assembly and the People's Councils are held in accordance with the principles of universal, equal, direct, and secret suffage. A member of the National Assembly shall be removed from office by the electors or the National Assembly, a member of a People's Council by the electors or the People's Council, when this member is no longer worthy of the confidence of the people. Article 8 All State organs, cadres and employees must show respect for the people, devotedly serve them, maintain close links with them, listen to their opinions and submit themselves to their control; all manifestations of bureaucratism arrogance, arbitrariness and coruption shall be vigorously opposed. Article 9 The Vietnam Fatherland Front and its member organizations constitute the political base of people's power. The Front promotes the tradtion of national solidarity, strengthens the people'sunity in political and spiritual matters, participates in the building and consolidation of people's power, works together with the State for the care and protection of the people's legitimate interests, encourages the people to exercise their right to mastery, ensures the strict observance of the Constitution and the law, and supervises the activity of State organs, elected representatives, and State officials and employees. The State shall create favourable conditions for the efective functioning of the Fatherland Front and its component organizations. Article 10 The trade union, being the socio-political organization of the working class and the toiling people, joins State organs, economic and social bodies in looking after and safguarding the rights and interests of cadres, workers, employees and other labouring people; it participates in State administration and social management, in the control and supervision of the activity of State organs and economic bodies; educate cadres, workers, employees and other labouring people to work well for national construction and defence. Article 11 The citizen exercises his right to mastery at the grassroots by participating in State and social affairs; he is dutybound to help protect public propety, legitimate civic rights and interests, maintain national security and social order, and organize public life. Article 12 The State exercises the administration of society by means of the law; it shall unceasingly strengthen socialist legality. All State organs, economic and social bodies, units of the people's armed forces, and all citizens must seriously observe the Constitution and the law, strive to prevent and oppose all criminal behaviour and all violations of the Constitution and the law. All infringements of State interests, of the rights and legitimate interests of collectives and individual citizens shall be dealt with in accordance with the law. Article 13 The Vietnamese motherland is sacred and inviolable. All machinations and acts directed against the independence, sovereignity, unity, and territorial integrity of the motherland against the construction and defence of the socialist Vietnamese motherland, shall be severely punished in accordance with the law Article 14 The Socialist Republic of Vietnam carries out a policy of peace and friendship, seek to expand its relations and cooperation with all countries in the world regardless of political and social regime on the basis of respect for each other's independence, sovereignity and territorial integrity, non-interference in each other's internal affairs, equality, and cooperation with the socialist countries and neighbouring countries; it actively supports and participates in the common struggle of the peoples of the world for peace, national independence, democracy and social progress./. CHAPTER II: ECONOMIC SYSTEM Article 15 The State promotes a multi-component commodity economy functioning in accordance with market mechanisms under the management of the State and following a socialist orientation. The multi- component economic structure with various forms of organization of production and trading is based on a system of ownership by the entire people, by collectives, and by private individuals, of which ownership by the entire people and by collectives constitutes the foundation. Article 16 The aim of the State's economic policy is to make the people rich and the country strong, satisfy to an ever greater extent the people's material and spiritual needs by releasing all productive potential, developing all latent possibilities of all components of the economy - the State sector, the collective sector, the private individual sector, the private capitalist sector, and the State capitalist sector in various forms - punishing on with the construction of material and technical bases, broadening economic, scientific, technical cooperation and expanding intercourse with world markets. Article 17 The land, forests, rivers and lakes, water supplies, wealth lying underground or coming from the sea, the continental shelf and the air, the funds and property invested by the State in enterprises and works in all branches and fields - the economy, culture, society, science, technology, external relations, national defence, security - and all other property determined by law as belonging to the State, come under ownership by the entire people. Article 18 The State manages all the landin accordance with the plan and the law, and guarantees that its use shall conform to the set objectives and yield effective results. The State shall entrust land to organization and private individuals for stable and lasting use. These organizations and individuals are responsible for the protection, enrichment, rational exploitation and economical use of the land; they may tranfer the right to use the the land entrusted to them by the State, as determined by law. Article 19 The State sector shall be consolidated and developed, especially in key branches and areas, and play the leading role in the national economy. The State - run enterprises enjoy autonomy in production and trading and shall guarantee that production and trading are to yield effective results.. Article 20 The collective sector growing out of the pooling by citizens of funds and efforts for coperative production and trading shall be organized in various forms following the principles of free consent, democracy, and mutual benefit. The State shall create favourable conditions for consolidating and broadening the coperatives and allowing them to operate efficiently. Article 21 In the private individual and private capitalist sectors people can adopt their own ways of organizing production and trading; they can set up enterprises of unrestricted scope in fields of activity which are beneficial to the country and the people. Encouragement shall be given to the development of the family economy. Article 22 Production and trading enterprises belonging to all components of the economy must fulfil all their obligations to the State; they are equal before the law; their capital and lawful property shall receive State protection. Enterprises belonging to all components of the economy can enter into joint venture and partnership with individuals and economic organizations at-home and abroad in accordance with the provisions of the law. Article 23 The lawful property of individuals and organizations shall not be nationalized. In cases made absolutely necessary by reason of national defence, security and the national interest, the State can make a forcible purchase of or can requisition pieces of property of individuals or organizations against compensation, taking into account current market prices. The formalities of the forcible purchase or requisition shall tx. determined by law. Article 24 The State manages and expands external economic relations, promotes economic ties of all kinds with all nations and all international organisations on the basis of the principles of respect for each other's independence and sovereignty, mutual advantage, and aiming at the protection and stimulation of domestic production. . Article 25 The State encourage foreign organizations and individuals to invest funds and technologies in Vietnam in conformity with Vietnamese law and international law and usage; it guarantees the right to lawful ownership of funds, property and other interests by foreign organizations and individuals. Enterprises with foreign investments shall not be nationalized. The State creates favourable conditions for Vietnamese residing abroad to invest in the country. Article 26 The State manages the national economy by means of laws, plans and policies; it makes a division of responsibilities and devolves authority to various departments and levels of the administration; the interests of individuals and collectives are brought into harmony with those of the State. Article 27 The State shall practise economy in all its economic social and managerial activities. Article 28 All illegal production and trading activities, all acts wrecking the national economy and damaging the interests of the State, the rights and lawful interests of collectives and individual citizens, shall be dealt with severely and equitably by the law. The State shall enact policies protecting the rights and interests of the producers and the consumers. Article 29 State organs, units of the armed forces, economic and social bodies, and all individuals must abide by State regulations on the rational use of natural wealth and on environmental protection. All acts likely to bring about exhaustion of natural wealth and to cause damage to the environment are strictly forbidden./. CHAPTER III: CULTURE, EDUCATION, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY Article 30 The State and society seek to preserve and develop Vietnamese culture, which shall be national, modern, and humanistic; it shall inherit and promote the values of the cultures of all nationalities in Vietnam, the thought, morality and style of Ho Chi Minh, the quintessence of human culture; all creative talent among the people shall be developed to the full. The State undertakes the overall administration of cultural activities. The propagation of all reactionary and depraved thought and culture is forbidden; superstitions and harmful custonis are to be eliminated. Article 31 The State shall create favourable conditions for the citizens to develop all-sidedly; it shall undertake civic education and urge people to live and work in accordance with the Constitution and the law, to set up families that are culture.d and happy, marked by patriotism, love of socialism, a genuinely internationalist spirit, friendship and cooperation with all nations in the world. Article 32 Literature and art contribute to fostering the personality of and nurturing spiritual nobility and beauty in the Vietnamese man. The State shall make investments for the promotion of culture, literature and art; it shall create favourable conditions for the people's enjoyment of valuable literary and artistic works; it shall give its patronage to creative talent in literature.and the arts. The State shall promote diversity in literary and artistic activity; it shall give encouragement to mass literary and artistic activities. Article 33 The State shall promote information work, the press, radio, television, cinema, publishing, libraries and other means of mass communication. Shall be strictly banned all activities in the fields of culture and information that are detrimental to national interests, and destructive of the personality, morals, and fine lifeway of the Vietnamese. Article 34 The State and society seek to preserve and develop the national cultural heritage; they take good care of preservation and museum work; they look after the repair and maintikance of, and seek to obtain the best effects from, historical vestiges, revolutionary relics, items of the national heritage, artistic works, and places with beautiful scenery. All acts in infringing historical vestiges, revolutionary relics, art works and places with beautiful scenery are strictly forbidden. Article 35 Education and training are top-priority policies. The State develops educational work with a view to heightening the people's spirit, training manpower, and fostering talent. The aim of education is to form and nurture the personality, moral qualities, and abilities of the citizen; to train working people and equip them with skills, to imbue them with dynamism and creativeness, national pride, good morality, and the will to strive for national prosperity, so as to meet the need to build and defend the country. Article 36 The State undertakes the overall management of the national system of education with regard to the objectives, contents, plans, the standards required of teachers, the regulations governing examinations and competitions and the system of diplomas and certificates. The State shall ensure the harmonious development of the educational system: preschool education, general education, vocational training, college and post-graduate education; it shall enforce the generalization of primary education, eliminate illiteracy; it shall develop various educational institutions: State-run schools, people-run schools, and others. The State gives priority investment to education and encouragement to other investors. Priority investment is reserved for educational work in the highlands, in regions inhabited by national minorities and in regions encountering special difficulties. Mass organizations, first of all the Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union, social organizations, economic bodies, the family and the school all bear responsibility for the education of the youth, teenagers and children. Article 37 Science and technology play a key role in the country's socio-economic development. The State works out and implements a national policy on science and technology; str'ves to build an advanced science and technology; sees to a well-coordinated development of all scientific branches with the aim of laying a scientific groundwork for the enactment of lines, policies and laws, renovating technologies, promoting productive forces, upgrading managerial skills, ensuring proper standards and rate of economic development, and contributing to national defence and security. Article 38 The State makes investment in and gives financial assistance to science through various channels, priority being reserved for vanguard sciences and technologies. It looks after the training and rational use of scientific and technical cadres particularly highly-qualified ones, skilled workers and artisans; it strives to create favourable conditions for creative work by scientists; devises many forms of organization and activity for researchers, ties scientific research to the requirements of socioeconomic development, ensures good coordination between scientific research and training on the one hand and production and trading on the other. Article 39 The State makes investment in, ensures the develoment of, and exercises unified management over the protection of the people's health; it mobifizes and organizes all social forces in the building and development of Vietnamese medicine following a far-sighted orientation; prev6ntion shall be combined with treatment, traditional medicine and pharmacology with modern medicine and pharmacology, State health services with people's health services; the State shall see to the organization of health insurance and create the necessary conditions for all citizens to enjoy health care. Priority is given to the programme of health care for highlanders and national minorities. It is strictly forbidden to private organizations and individuals to dispense medical treatment, to produce and trade in medicaments illegally, thereby damaging the people's health. Article 40 It is the responsibility of the State, society, the family and the citizen to ensure care and protection for mothers and children; to carry into effect the population programme and family planning. Article 41 The State and society shall develop a system of physical culture and sports that is national, scientific and popular. The State exercises overall management for the development of physical culture and sports; it shall establish a regime of compulsory physical culture ill, the school; it shall give encouragement and assistance to various forms of physical culture and sports activity freely practised by the people; it shall create the necessary condiI tions for the unceasing expansion of mass activity in physical culture and sports; it shall pay attention to activities in professional sports and to the fostering of sports talent. Article 42 The State and society shall promote tourism; tourist activities shall be expanded at home and internationally. Article 43 The State shall expand international intercourse and cooperation in the fields of culture, information, literature, art, science, technology, education, health care, physical culture and sports. CHAPTER IV: DEFENCE OF THE SOCIALISTE VIETNAMESE MOTHERLAND Article 44 The entire people shall endeavour to defend the socialist Vietnamese motherland and ensure national security. The State shall consolidate and strengthen national defence by the entire people and the people's security, the people's armed forces being regarded as the core, and shall de'velop to the full the aggregate strength of the country to defend the national territory. All State organs, economic bodies, social organizations and all citizens shall fulfil all their national defence and security obligations as laid down by the law. Article 45 All units of the people's armed forces must show absolute loyalty to the motherland and the people; their duty is to stand ready to fight to safeguard national independence and sovereignty, the country's unity and territorial integrity, national security and social order, to safeguard the socialist regime and the fruits of the revolution, and to join the entire people in national construction. Article 46 The State shall build a revolutionary people's army which shall be a well-trained regular army to be gradually modernized; it shall build up powerful reserves and self-defence militia by combining national construction with national defence, the strength of the people's armed forces with that of the entire people, the strength of the traditional unity against foreign aggression with that of the socialist regime. Article 47 The State shall build a revolutionary people's police which shall be a well-trained regular force to be gradually modernized; this police shall rely on the people and shall serve as the core of a popular movement to safeguard national security and social order, political stability and the citizen's freedoms and democratic rights, the lives and property of the people and socialist property; it shall seek to prevent all crimes and shall fight against them. Article 48 The State shall develop to the full the people's patriotism and revolutionary heroism, educate the entire people in matters of national defence and security, enact a regime of military service and rear-area policies, build up the national-defence industry to ensure proper equipment for the armed forces. It shall harmonize national defence with the economy and vice versa, seek to ensure proper material and spiritual flying conditions for officers and soldiers, national-defence workers and employees. It shall build powerful people's armed forces and unceasingly reinforce the countty's national-defence potential. CHAPTER V: FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF THE CITIZEN Article 49 A citizen of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a person with Vietnamese nationality. Article 50 In the Socialist Republic of Vietn'am human rights in the political, civic, economic, cultural and social fields are respected. They are embodied in the citizen's rights and are determined by the Constitution and the law. Article 51 The citizen's rights are inseparable from his duties. The State guarantees the rights of the citizen; the citizen must fulfil his duties to the State and society. The citizen's rights and duties are determined by the Constitution and the law. Article 52 All citizens are equal before the law. Article 53 The citizen has the right to participate in the administration of the State and management of society; the discussion of problems of the country and the region, he can send petitions to State organs and vote in referendums organized by the State. Article 54 The citizen, regardless of nationafity, sex, social background, religious befief, cultural standard, occupation, time of residence, Chap, upon reaching the age of eighteen, have the right to vote, and, upon reaching the age of twenty-one, have the right to stand for election to the National Assembly and the People's Councils in accordance with the provisions of the law. Article 55 The citizen has both the right and the duty to work. The State and society shafl work out plans to create ever more employment for the working people. Article-56 The State shall enact policies and establish regimes for the protection of labour. The State shall establish working times, wage scales, regimes of rest and social insurance for State employees and wage-earners; it shall encourage and promote other forms of social insurance for the benefit of the working people. Article 57 The citizen enjoys freedom of enterprise as determined by law. Article 58 The citizen enjoys the right of ownership with regard to his lawful income, savings, housing, chattel, means of production, funds and other possessions in enterprises or other economic organizations; with regard to land entrusted by the State for use, the matter is regulated by the provisions of Articles 17 and 18. The State protects the citizen's right of lawful ownership and right of inheritance. Article 59 The citizen has both the right and the duty to receive training and instruction. Primary education is compulsory and dispensed free of charge. The citizen has the right to get general education and vocational training in various ways. With regard to school students with special aptitudes the State and society shall create conditions for them to blossom out. The State shall enact policies regarding tuition fees and scholarships. The State and society shall create the necessary conditions for handicapped children to acquire general knowledge and appropriate job training. Article 60 The citizen has the right to carry out scientific and technical research, make inventions and discoveries, initiate tccnkiicdi innovations, rationalize production, engage in literary and artistic creation and criticism, and participate in other cultural activities. The State protects copyright and industrial proprietorship. Article 61 The citizen is entitled to a regime of health protection. The State shall establish a system of hospital fees, together with one of exemption from and reduction of such fees. The citizen has the duty to observe all regulations on disease prevention and public hygiene. It is strictly forbidden to produce, transport, deal ik store and use unlawfully opium and other narcotics. T'he State shall enact regulations on compulsory treatment of drug addiction and treatment of dangerous social diseases. Article 62 The citizen has the right to build dweffin-houses according to zoning regulations and the law. The rights of lessees and are protected by the law. Article 63 Male and female citizens have equal rights in all fields - pofitical, economic, cultural, social, and the family. All acts of discrimination against women and all acts damaging women's dignity are strictly banned. Men and women shall receive equal pay for equal work. Women workers shall enjoy a regime related to maternity. Women who are State employees and wage-earners shall enjoy paid prenatal and post-natal leaves during which they shall receive afi their wages and allowances as determined by law. The State and society shall create all necessary conditions for women to raise their qualifications in all fields and fully play their roles insociety; they shall see to the development of maternity homes, pediatric departments, creches and other social-welfare units so as to lighten house work and allow women to engage more actively in work and study, undergo medical treatment, enjoy periods o . f rest and fulfil their maternal duties. Article 64 The family is the cell of society. The State protects marriage and the family. Marriage shall conform to the principles of free consent, progressive union, monogamy and equality between husband and wife. Parents have the responsibility to bring up their children into good citizens. Children and grandchildren have the duty to show respect to and look after their.parents and grandparents. The State and society shall recognize no discrimination among children. Article 65 Children enjoy protection, care and education by the family, the State and society. Article 66 The family, the State and society shall create favourable conditions for young people to study, work, relax, develop bodies and minds, and shall educate them in morality, national tradition, civic consciousness and the socialist iddai, for them to be in the van of creative labour and national defence. Article 67 War invalids, sick soldiers, and the families of fallen soldiers and revolutionary martyrs shall enjoy preferential treatment in State policies. War invalids shall enjoy favourable conditions for their physical rehabilitation, shall be given employment suited to their state of health and assistance in securing stable, living conditions. Individuals and families credited with meritorious service to the country shall be given commendation and reward and shall be looked after. Old people, infirm people and orphans without support shall receive State assistance Article 68 The citizen shall enjoy freedom of movement and of residence within the country; he can freely travel abroad and return home from abroad in accordance with the provisions of the law. Article 69 The-citizen shall enjoy freedom of opinion and speech, freedom of the press, the right to be informed, and the right to assemble, fornl associations and hold demonstrations in accordance with the provisions of the law. Article 70 The citizen shall enjoy freedom of belief and of religion; he can foll.ow any religion or follow none. All religions are equal before the law. The places of worship of all faiths and religions are protected by the law. No cane can violate freedom of belief and of religion; nor can anyone misuse beliefs and religions to contravene the law and State policies. Artide 71 The citizen, shall enjoy inviolability of the person and the protection of the law with regard to his fife, health, honour and dignity. ruling or sanction of the People's Office of Supervision and Control, except in case of flagrant offences. Taking a perscin into, or holding him in, custody must be done with ftdl observance of the law. It is strictly forbidden to use all forms of harassment and coercion, torture, violation of his honour and dignity, against a citizen. Article 72 No one shall be regarded as guilty and be subjected to punishment before the sentence of the Court has acquired fufi legal effect. Any person who has been arrested, held in custody, prosecuted, brought to trial in violation of the law shall be entitled to damages for any material harm suffered and his reputation shall be rehabilitated. Anybody who contravenes the law in arresting, holding in custody, prosecuting, bringing to trial another person thereby causing him damage shall be dealt with severely. Article 73 The citizen is entitled to the inviolabifity of his domicile. No one can enter the domicile of another person without his consent, except in cases authorized by the law. Safety and secrecy are guaranteed to the citizen's correspondence, telephone conversations and telegrams. Domiciliary searches and the opening, control, and confiscation of a citizen's correspondence and telegrams can only he done by a competent authority in accordance with the provisions of the law. Article 74 The citizen has the right to lodge complaints and denunciations with the competent State authorities against the illegal doings of State organs, dconomic bodies, social organizations, units of the people's armed forces, or of any individual. The complaints and denunciations must be examined and settled by the State authorities within the time laid down by the law. All acts violating the interests of the State, the rights and legitimate interests of collectives and citizens shall be dealt with severely in time. The person who has suffered loss and injury shall be entitled to damages for any material harm suffered and his reputation rehabilitated. It is strictly forbidden to take vengeance on the person making complaints and denunciations, or to misuse the right to make complaints and denunciations with the aim of slandering and causing harm to another person. Article 75 The State shall protect the legitimate interests of Vietnamese people residing abroad. The State shall create the necessary conditions for Vietnamese residing abroad to maintain close ties with their families and native land and to contribute to national construction. Article 76 The citizen must show loyalty to his motherland. To betray one's motherland is the most serious crime. Article 77 It is the sacred duty and the noble right of the citizen to defend his motherland. The citizen must fulfd his military obligation and join in the all-people national defence. Article 78 The citizen has the duty to respect and protect the property of the State and the public interest. Article 79 The citizen has the duty to obey the Constitution and the law, join in the safeguarding of national security and social order and the preserving of national secrets, and abide by the regulation of public life. Article 80 The citizen has the duty to pay taxes and perform public-interest labour according to the provisions of the law. Article 81 Foreigners residing in Vietnam must obey the Constitution and law of Vietnam; they shall receive State protection with regard to their lives, possessions and legitimate interests in accordance with the provisions of Vietnamese law. Article 82 The Socialist Republic of Vietnam shall consider granting asylum to foreigners struggling for freedom, national independence, socialism, democracy and peace, or are harmed because of their scientific work. CHAPTER VI: THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY Article 83 The National Assembly is the highest representative organ of the people and the highest organ of State power of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam The National Assembly is the only organ with constitutional and legislative powers. The National Assembly shall decide the fundamental dorriestic and foreign policies, the socioeconomic tasks, the country's national-defence and security issues, the essential principles governing the organization and activity of the State machinery, the social relations and the activities of the citizen. The National Assembly shall exercise supreme control over all activities of the State. Article 84 The National Assembly has the following obligations and powers: 1.To make and amend the Constitution; to make and amend laws; to work out a programme for making laws and decree-laws; 2.To exercise supreme control over conformity to the Constitution, the law and the resolutions orthe National Assembly., to examine the reports of the country's President, the Standing Committee of the National Assembly, the Government, the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Office for Supervision and Control; 3. To decide the country's plan for socioeconomic development 4.To decide the national financial and monetary policies; to decide the draft State budget and budgetary appropriations; to approve the accounts of the State budget; to estabfish, change, or abolish taxes; 5.To decide the nationalities policy of the State; 6.To regulate the organization and activity of the National Assembly, the country's President, the Government, the People's -Courts, the People's Office of Supervision and Control and the local administrations. 7. To elect, release from duty, remove from office the pountry's President and Vice-President, the Chairman of the National Assembly, the Vice-Chairmen and members of the Standing Committee of the National Assembly, the Prime Minister, the President of the Supreme People's Court, the Head of the Supreme People's Office of Supervision and Control; to sanction the proposals of the country's President on the establishment of the Council of National Defence and Security; to sarction the Proposals of the Prime Minister on the appointment, release from duty and removal from office of . Deputy Prime Ministers, Cabinet Ministers and other members of the Government; 8.To set up or suppress government ministries and government organs of ministerial rank; to establish, merge, divide, or adjust the boundaries of provinces and cities under direct central rule; to set up or disband special administrative-economic units; 9.To abrogate all formal written documents issued,by the country's President, the Standing Committee of the National Assembly, the Government, the Prime Minister, the Supreme People's Court, and the Supreme People's Office of Supervision and Control, that run counter to the Constitution, the law, and resolutions taken by the National Assembly; 10.To proclaim an amnesty; 11.To institute titles and ranks ip the people's armed forces, in the diplomatic service and other State titles and ranks; to institute medals, badges and State honours and distinctions; 12.To decide issues of war and peace; to proctaim a state of emergency and other special measures aimed at ensuring national defence and security; 13.To decide fundamental policies in external relations; to ratify or annul international agreements that have been signed or participated in on the proposal of the country's President; 14. To hold a referendum. Article 85 The duration of each National Assembly is five years. Two months before the end of its tenure, a new National Assembly shall have been elected. The electoral procedure and the number of members of the National Assembly shall be established by law. In special cases, with the approval of at least two-thirds of its members, the National Assembly can either reduce or prolong its period of tenure. Article 86 The National Assembly shall hold two sessions each year, to be convened by its Standing Committee. When so required by the country's President, the Prime Minister, or at least one-third of the total membership of the National Assembly, or in pursuance of its own decision, the Standing Committee may convene an extraordinary session of the National Assembly. The first session of the nevay-elected National Assembly shall be convened two months after its election at the IaLest.y it shall be opened and presided over by the chairman of the outgoing Assembly until the elecfion by the incoming Assembly of its chairman. Article 87 The country's President, the Standing Committee of she National Assembly, the Nationalities Council and Committees of the National Assembly, the Government, the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Office of Supervision and Control, the Vietnam Fatherland Front and its member organizations may present draft laws to the National Assembly Members of the National Assembly may present motions concerning laws and draft laws to the National Assembly. The procedure for the presentation to the National Assembly of draft laws and motions concerning laws shah be established by law. Article 88 Laws and resolutions of the National Assembly must be approved by more than half the total membership of thd National Assembly; but decisions taken by the National Assembly to remove from office one of its members as stipulated in Article 7, to reduce or prolong its tenure as stipulated in Axticle 85 and to a:mend the Constitution as stipulated in Article 147 must be approved by at least two-thirds of its total membership. Laws and resolutions of the National Assembly must be made public fifteen days after their adoption at the latest. Article 89 The National Assembly shall elect a Credentials Committee and base itself on the report of the Committee to confirm the capacity of its members. Article 90 The Standing Committee of the National Assembly is its permanent Committee. It is composed of - the Chairman of the National Assembly; - the Vice-Chairmen of the National Assembly; - the members. The membership of the Standing Committee shall be determined by the National Assembly. A member of the Standing Comraittee of the National Assembly cannot be at the same time a member of the Government. The membership of the Standing Committee shall be determined by the National Assembly. A member of the Standing Comraittee of the National Assembly cannot be at the same time a member of the Government. Article 91 Following are the duties and powers of the Standing Committee of the.National Assembly: 1.To call and preside over the election of the National Assembly; 2. To prepare for, to convene, and preside over the sessions of the National Assembly; 3. To interpret the Constitution, the law, and decree-laws; . 4. To enact decree-laws on matters entrusted to it by the National Assembly; 5. To exercise supervision and control over the implementa.tion of the Constitution, the law, the resolutions of the National Assembly, decree-laws, the resolutions of the Standing Committee of the National Assembly; over the activities of the Government, the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Ottice of Supervision and Control; to suspend the execution of the formal written orders of the Government, the Prime Minister, the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Office of Supervision and Control, that contravene the Constitution, the law, the resolutions of the National Assembly; to report the matter to the National Assembly for it to decide the abrogation of such orders; to repeal the written orders of the Government Prime Minister, the Supreme People's Court the Supreme People's Office of Supervision and Control that are contrary to the decree-laws and resolutions of the Standing Committee of the National Assembly; 6. To exercise supervision and control over, and fo give guidance to, the activities of the People's Councils; to annul wrong resolutions by the People's Councils of provinces and cities under direct central rule; to disband People's Councils of provinces and cities under direct central rule whenever such Councils cause serious harm to the interests of the people; 7. To direct, harmonize, and co-ordinate the activities of the Nationalities Council and the Committees of the National Assembly, to give guidance to, and to ensure good working conditions for, members of the National Assembly; 8. In the intervals between sessions of the National Assembly, to sanction proposals of the Prime Minister concerning the appointment, release from duty, and dismissal of a Deputy Prime Minister, Cabinet Minister, and other members of the Government, and to report such matters to the nearest session of the National Assembly; 9. In the intervals between sessions of the National Assembly, to -proclaim the state of war in case of foreign aggression and report the matter to the National Assembly for its approval at its nearest session;; 10. To proclaim general or partial mobilization to proclaim a state of emergency throughout the country or in a particular region; 11.To carry out the National Assembly's external relations; Article 92 The Chairman of'the National Assembly shall preside over its sessions; authenticate through his signature laws and resolutions of the National Assembly; give leadership to the activities of its Standing Committee; organize the carrying out of its external relations; maintain relationship with its members. The Vice-Chairmen of the National Assembly shall assist the Chairman in the fulfilment of his duties as required by him. Article 93 The decree-laws and resolutions of the Standing Committee of the National Assembly must he approved by more than half of its membership. They must be made public fifteen days following their adoption at the latest, except in case they are presented by the country's President to the National Assembly for review. Article 94 The National Assembly shall elect a Nationalities Council comprising the Chairman, Vice- Chairmen, and members. The Nationalities Council studies and makes pr(iposals to the National Assembly on issues concerning the nationalities; supdrvises and controls t@e iffipiementation of policies on nationalities, the execution of programmes and plans for socioeconomic development of the highlands and regions inhabited by national minorities. Prior to the promulgation of decisions related to nationafities policies, the Government must consult the Nationalities Council. The Chairman of the Nationalities Council can sit iid on meetings of the Standing Committee of the National Assembly and meetings of the Government at which are discussed ways of putting into effect policies on nationalities. The Nationalities Council has also other duties and powers as assigned to the Committees of the National Assembly in Article 95. A number of members of the Nationalities Council are in charge of specipl tasks. Article 95 The National Assembly shall elect its Committees. The Committees of the National Assembly study and check draft laws, make proposals concerning laws, draft decree-laws and other drafts, and repor ' ts entrusted to them by the National Assembly or its Standing Committee; present to the National Assembly and its Standing Committee their views on legislative programmes; exercise supervision and control within the bounds determined by law; make proposals concerning issues within their fields of activity. A number of members of each Committee are in charge of special tasks. Article 96 The Nationalities Council and the. Committees of the National Assembly can require members of the Government, the President of the Suprerne People's Court, the Head of the Supreme People's Office of Supervision and Control, and other State officials to report or supply documents on certain necessary matters. Those to whom such requests are made must satisfy them. It is the responsibility of State organs to examine and answer the proposals made by the Nationalities Council and the Committees of the National Assembly. Article 97 The deputy to the National Assembi y represents the will and aspirations of the people, not only of his constituency but of the whole country. The deputy to the National Assembly must maintain close ties with the electors; submit himself to their control; collect and faithfully reflect their views and aspirations for the consideration of the National Assembly and the State organs concerned; maintain regular contacts with and make reports to the electors on his own activities and the National Assembiy's; answer the requests and proposals of the electors; examine, activate and keep track of the way citizens' complaints and denunciations are dealt with, and give guidance and assistance to citizens seekiqg to exercise their rights. The deputy to the National Assembly shall popularize and urge the people to implement the Constitution, laws and resolutions of the National Assembly. Article 98 The deputy to the National Assembly has the right to interpellate the country's President, the Chairman of the National Assembly, the Prime Minister, Cabinet Ministers and other members of the Government, the President of the Supreme People's.Court, and the Head of the Supreme People's Office of Supervision and Control. The interpellated officials must give an answer at the current session; in case an inquiry is needed the National Assembly may, decide that the answer should be given to its Standing Committee or at one of its own subsequent sessions, or may allow the answer to be given in writing. The deputy to the National Assembly has the right to request State organs, social organizations, economic bodies, and units of the armed forces to answer questions on matters with which he is concerned. The people in charge of those organs, organizations, bodies and units have the responsibility to answer questions put by the deputy within the time limit set by the law. Article 99 A member of the National Assembly cannot be arrested or prosecuted without the consent of the National Assembly and, in the intervals between its sessions, without the consent of its Standing Committee. In case of a flagrant offence and the deputy is taken into temporary custody, the organ effecting his arrest must immediately report the facts to the National Assembly or its Standing Committee for it to examine them and take a decision. Article 100 The deputy to the National Assembly must devote the necessary time to his work. It is the responsibility of the Standing Committee of the National Assembly, the Prime Minister, the Cabinet Ministers, the other members of the Government, and the other State organs to supply him with the material he requires and to create the necessary conditions for him to fulfd his duty. The State shall ensure that he has the money necessary to his activities. CHAPTER VII: THE COUNTRY'S PRESIDENT Article 101 The country's President is the Head of State and represents the Socialist Republic of Vietnam internally and externally.